The Aboriginal People of Australia lived around Uluru Ayers Rock for more than 30,000 years before 1873 when its presence was first recorded by William Gosse, a surveyor for the new European settlers of Australia. It was named Ayers Rock after the Chief Secretary of South Australia, though officially it is now known as Uluru Ayers Rock to honour the original Aboriginal name.
Located in the geographical heart of Australia it is approximately a 3 hour flight from the main cities of the east and south coasts and is almost equal flying time from Sydney, Cairns or Melbourne.
Perhaps the best way to get a feel for the immense size and scale is to see it up close from the air. A tour by helicopter will throw it into focus very quickly. Other tours available (walking, vehicle based, or by camel) will get you up close to the Rock at almost any time of day.
You can find much more information (and inspiration!) here.